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Roleplaying Tips Weekly E-Zine Issue #220

7 Tips For Roleplaying Encounter Locations



Contents:
This Week's Tips Summarized

7 Tips For Roleplaying Encounter Locations

  1. Give The Location An Attitude
  2. Add A Secret
  3. Make The Encounter Chime With The Location
  4. Add Objects To The Scene & Interact With Them
  5. Add NPCs To The Scene & Interact With Them
  6. Think Z-Axis
  7. Huge List Of Roleplaying Locations
Readers' Tips Summarized

  1. NPC Moods
    From: Rick Friedman
  2. RPG Sound Mixer
    From: Bluemagician The Sorcerer
  3. Dealing With Spotlight Requests
    From: Garry Stahl
  4. Metric Movement Rates
    From: Paul Simmons

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A Brief Word From Johnn

Paranoia Is A Fun Game

I played Paranoia (2nd Ed.) for the first time today. What a great game! It's definitely oriented towards one-shots and not campaign play, so it makes an ideal ice-breaker for a new group or a make-up game if your regular one can't be played.

I burned through 5 clones and got in on two mutant commie kills. Because I was the new guy and didn't know what I was doing, I was designated the party leader. And things went downhill from there. :)

A recommended experience for any gamer.

Have a game-full week!

Cheers,

Johnn Four,
johnn@roleplayingtips.com

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RolePlayingMaster


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7 Tips For Roleplaying Encounter Locations

Treat your encounter locations like NPCs and you just might get more interesting and entertaining results at the game table. In Issue #219 I made a call-out for roleplaying encounter location ideas. That wonderful list follows as the last tip below. The physical location is just one part of the formula to great roleplaying encounter settings, though.

Encounters are like NPCs. And a good roleplaying NPC has multiple dimensions. In addition to designing his statistics, he would benefit from having a personality, a motive or goal, a secret, and a quirk or two, among other things. Treating encounter locations the same way, as a multi-dimensional game element, should give them more personality and life and please your players more.

The tips below assume you'll be using the location for a roleplaying type encounter. The tips could easily apply to other types of encounters, such as combat and puzzle, though for those types I'd do things a bit differently. Maybe that would make a good future article?

  1. Give The Location An Attitude

    You're either in design mode before the game or winging-it mode during the game and you've picked your spot for an encounter. It might be on a pier, in an empty church, or in the furnace room of a hospital. What now?

    It's important to try and make every encounter location distinct and interesting. The players will be more attentive to the game and their PCs' surroundings. You'll be helping them envision the setting and get into character better.

    While detailing a location's contents and inhabitants well is important (see tips below), they don't always help make a setting unique. What happens if the PCs visit the same place multiple times? The same old objects and NPCs will probably be there and each encounter in that place will seem less distinct and unique.

    The solution is to add some attitude. Before the encounter begins, decide on a mood, disposition, or bias for the setting, and make it different each time an encounter takes place in the same location. This way, even if the location is the same, it will have a different feel to it and the players' perceptions of it will change.

    Example encounter location attitudes:

    • Friendly
    • Hostile
    • Happy
    • Sad
    • Miserable
    • Malicious
    • Lucky
    • Mischievous
    • Romantic
    • Merry
    • Weary
    • Fearful
    • Casual


    Once you've picked an attitude, slant the encounter's various elements to suit the mood. This is where your creativity and joy of design comes into play. It's a puzzle. For example, how could you make your next encounter location sad?

    Some ideas:

    • Someone has recently died and the NPCs in the area are wearing black arm bands and are sad themselves
    • The sky is overcast
    • The air is stale and still
    • It's quiet
    • Anything that's moving is doing so slowly, without purpose or urgency
    • The location is cast in shadow
    • Flowers and other plants seem wilted
    • Buildings seem in disrepair
    • Sad music is being played somewhere nearby
    • A dog is yelping and crying nearby


    The PCs return in a couple of days and you decide the location now has a merry attitude:

    • The period of mourning has ended, the black arm bands are off
    • A small street party is taking place
    • Laughter and cheer can be heard from a tavern
    • Children and pets are running around, playing games
    • The sun is bright and warm
    • Plants are perky
    • The buildings seem taller and straighter
    • Merry music from a small band has people dancing in the street


    It's important that the NPCs in your roleplaying encounter react to the attitude you've created. This acknowledges the difference and draws the players' attention to the attitude. It will also queue the players to roleplay and react to the attitude as well, which is one of the main points of the exercise.

    Adding attitude not only makes encounter locations different and interesting, but makes encounter types different and interesting as well. Imagine a hostage negotiation in the scenarios above. Each roleplaying encounter would feel, and possibly play, differently because of the changed mood of the location.

    In many cases, you're dealing with a change of perception and a bit of poetic license. Today, the cracks in the walls seem discoloured and ugly; yesterday, they looked like they formed a happy face. As long as you don't mislead the PCs, they'll appreciate the special touches that adding attitude brings.

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  2. Add A Secret

    Add a mysterious or unknown element to each encounter location. The secret doesn't need to come into play or even be directly observed by the PCs. It just needs to be there as subtext and used as an interesting encounter element that subtly flavours your roleplaying.

    As with NPCs and plot secrets, location secrets can help you in other ways, such as by spawning side-plots, acting as hooks, or adding a wow factor to a future session when the secret is revealed to the players.

    Examples of location secrets:

    • The area is used by the underworld as a base for illegal activities
    • A very important NPC lives nearby
    • It's the secret base of a villain yet to be encountered
    • A crime is being committed nearby
    • Something important is buried right beneath the PCs' feet
    • The residents worship an evil god
    • The residents are loyal to a crime boss
    • A serial killer is terrorizing the area
    • An evil mage has a lab nearby
    • Fugitives are hiding nearby


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  3. Make The Encounter Chime With The Location

    Look for opportunities to make the location you've picked synergize with what's happening in the encounter. For example, if the PCs are investigating some stolen jewelry and they're interrogating a petty thief in an alley, you might take up the theme of "theft" and flavour the setting with it. A young hooligan might steal an apple across the street and a cheeky flight from the merchant ensues. Perhaps a dark cloud passes overhead, stealing the light and darkening the shadows of the alley. Perhaps some kids are playing piggy-in-the-middle in the street.

    If you know what kind of roleplaying will take place and you still have the opportunity to pick the location, choose a setting that matches the anticipated mood or nature of the encounter. If it's going to be a clash of wits, for example, you might set the encounter in a library:

    As the PCs try to verbally outmanoeuvre their foe, the NPC draws out various scrolls and books from the shelves to accentuate his points.

    "As the bold, yet misguided, philosopher, Armedes, wrote [taps book in his hand in a condescending manner], just because something could have happened, might have happened, probably have happened, that doesn't mean it *did* happen. [Sigh.]

    In fact, there is often little relationship between the potential of an event happening, such as the crime you are accusing me of, and the actual occurrence of said event!

    Good old Armedes [puts book back on shelf]. It's too bad he was hung for making false accusations against the King."


    This tip works well in conjunction with giving locations attitude. You can set-up a double-whammy of location type and attitude adjustment to lend the place great mood, symbolic props, and poignant atmosphere.

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  4. Add Objects To The Scene & Interact With Them

    If nature abhors a vacuum, so do encounters. Flesh out a location by filling it up with objects. The added details that objects provide help bring encounters to life. The objects themselves also make great props to help you and your players roleplay.

    Adding stuff is where many GMs get stuck, especially if they're winging it. It can also be a time-consuming design task. When fleshing out your next location, try these techniques:

    • Mentally envision the area. This seems like a no-brainer, but it's often poorly done, and therefore yields poor results. What happens is that we get stuck in left-brain, analytical mode. You are presented with a location and you logically try to brainstorm a list of possible contents.

      Instead, if you graphically try to imagine what the area or place looks like, all sorts of details can come to mind that a brainstorm list might not get. Start with picturing the structure or boundaries of the area. Then fill in the lighting. Then entrances and exits. The think of what the purpose of the area is and what kinds of things would be around that would serve this purpose. Picture furniture, tools, machinery, decoration, and storage.

      One of the big benefits of envisioning a location instead of just listing its contents is that you can usually instantly summon the picture during a session and describe it to the players with greater speed and ease than finding and reciting off of a list.

      This is also an activity you can perform while driving, standing in line, etc. During a session, while winging-it, it often just takes a few moments to conjure up an image before you start the encounter.

    • Find a picture. Use magazines, books, or the internet to find a visual of your location. Then note the scene's contents and make a an inventory from there. If the genre and details are close, you can simply use the picture during the session. Just be prepared to answer all the "what's this?" questions you'll get!

    • Have a player describe the scene. Players usually have less going on than you will and can spare a few brain cycles to ponder what contents the location would have. Once the player in done her description, you add in any other important items as required.

      It's often effective to give the player a couple minutes' advance notice so they can properly ponder what the location holds. When the encounter starts, you might say, "Ok, I'm going to take a couple minute pause to get my notes in order. Bob, I'm going to ask you to describe the scene for us, including some details about what's lying around and what furniture and other things are present."


    Once you've filled the area up with stuff, be sure to interact with it. Don't have the NPCs stay rooted to their starting positions as they parley with the PCs. Have them pour themselves a drink, peer out a window, summon the shoe shine boy, or pick up the fire poker and wave it around. This will encourage the players to do the same and will bring the location to life.

    Feel free to have the props act upon the NPCs and PCs too! Have something fall (not dangerously though), something operate, something move or make a noise. Have something break, spill, or work exceptionally well.

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  5. Add NPCs To The Scene & Interact With Them

    We know it's going to be a roleplaying encounter, so there's going to be at least one NPC, be it a person, intelligent magic item, smart beast, or what have you. However, when possible, add more NPCs to your locations. Encounters hate being lonely!

    The purpose is to flesh out the encounter with things to interact with or talk about. Non-essential NPCs are great fuel for adding flavour and enhancing the roleplaying. Often, their mere presence helps the players feel like there's a vibrant world out there. It's ironic, but quite often dungeon encounters have more people and creatures in them than roleplaying ones do. :)

    Example background NPCs:

    • Servants
    • Guests
    • Agents
    • Visitors
    • Family
    • Passersby
    • Customers
    • Spies
    • Attendants
    • Girl/boyfriends
    • Curiosity seekers
    • Eavesdroppers
    • Contractors
    • Assistants
    • Employees
    • Slaves
    • Employers
    • Managers
    • Friends


    If your genre allows it, think of some unusual NPCs to spice things up--just beware of their distraction potential though.

    • Smart pets
    • Aliens
    • Ambassador
    • Familiar or charmed animal
    • Intelligent magic item
    • Animated furniture
    • Avatar
    • Automated machinery
    • Magical presence (i.e. wizard eye)
    • Holographic presence


    Adding NPCs also creates more witnesses. You can use this as a defensive or offensive GMing tactic. For example, it would be harder to for the barbarian commit a spontaneous attack/murder in a stadium full of sports fans than it would if the encounter took place beneath a bridge. To be on the offensive, and to create greater challenge, prying eyes and straining ears can make some types of roleplaying encounters more interesting for the PCs. Witnesses, and "filler" NPCs in general, are a great GM tool, so use them generously.

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  6. Think Z-Axis

    Don't forget to think in three dimensions when considering the encounter location. Think left, right, up, and down. Believe it or not, your roleplaying encounters could suffer from the same toe-to-toe syndrome that your combat encounters might!

    Instead of the PCs and NPC(s) always standing or sitting close together and chatting, separate them and place them in all three dimensions. Put the NPC up on a ladder as he's painting a room or looking for a book. Place the non-player character in the tiny cellar or up in the loft. Have the PCs straining their necks as they stand speaking with the mounted guard.

    In your next encounter, try to add stairs, ladders, elevators, a dais, a pit, a cellar, a platform, and so on. Have the NPC(s) move around during the encounter so that they move through the location's varied space to further drive home the impression of dimension.

    Add in some range and suddenly you have many more options and opportunities for bringing roleplaying encounters to life. Think waaaay up, and deeeep down. Think what's a few dozen yards to the north, east, west, and south. What's happening in the area around the ground zero point of the encounter?

    For example:

    • What events are occurring nearby?
    • Have NPCs "go for a walk" so that the encounter takes place on the move, further adding dimension to the location.
    • What sounds and sights from nearby might impinge upon the encounter location?


    Try to avoid adding too many distractions to a location, but it wouldn't hurt for every third encounter or so to have motion or be impacted by something else nearby in mid- roleplay.

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  7. Huge List Of Roleplaying Locations

    Following is a nice, long list of location ideas for your upcoming roleplaying encounters. These should act as kernels to which you add attitude, secrets, objects, NPCs, and dimension. Thanks to everyone again for their submissions!

    1. A dog (or fantasy creature) pound
    2. Abandoned mine
    3. Abandoned Victorian hospital
    4. Abandoned/active distillery
    5. Aboard a ship
    6. Aboard an airship
    7. Airport
    8. Alternate plane or dimension
    9. Amphitheatre
    10. Amusement park
    11. An AA Meeting
    12. Ancient caves beneath the sewer systems
    13. Animal fight
    14. Anniversary party
    15. Antique wine-cellar
    16. Anywhere where the power is cut
    17. Apothecary shop
    18. Archery contest
    19. Army Camp
    20. Around the office water-cooler
    21. Art gallery
    22. Atomic test observation bunker
    23. Attic
    24. Auction block square
    25. Auction house
    26. Awards ceremony
    27. Back room in a carpet salesman's shop
    28. Back stairs
    29. Backstage at a play or opera
    30. Balcony
    31. Bar
    32. Base of an active volcano
    33. Base of an ancient triumphal arch
    34. Basement
    35. Bathhouse
    36. Bathysphere
    37. Beach
    38. Behind a hedge along the side of the road
    39. Behind the barn
    40. Behind the smithy
    41. Bell tower
    42. Below a bridge
    43. Below gallows
    44. Beside a statue
    45. Beside jugglers
    46. Birthday party
    47. Birthing
    48. Blind Man's House
    49. Boiler Room
    50. Box seats at the theatre or opera
    51. Boxing match
    52. Branches of a giant tree
    53. Brewery
    54. Bridge
    55. Bridge deck of the ship
    56. Bridge pylon at water level
    57. Bridge service platform
    58. Brothel
    59. Burned tower
    60. Burning windmill at night
    61. Bustling bazaar
    62. Cabin in the woods
    63. Canal
    64. Candy factory
    65. Car chop shop
    66. Car race
    67. Cargo hold of a starship while in orbit
    68. Carriage
    69. Casino
    70. Castle laundry
    71. Cave while the ship sits off shore
    72. Caverns under an iceberg
    73. Cellar
    74. Cemetery
    75. Children's Playground
    76. Church
    77. Church/shrine
    78. Circus Wagon
    79. City's abandoned mines
    80. City baths
    81. City battlements
    82. City gates
    83. City or castle wall
    84. Classy penthouse
    85. Cliff overlooking a canyon
    86. Cliff overlooking a great waterfall
    87. Cloister of a monastery where the monks are sworn to silence
    88. Cloister of a nunnery where you are not a nun or even a woman
    89. Cockpit
    90. Coffee house
    91. College campus
    92. Coliseum
    93. Common table in a crowded inn
    94. Company board meeting
    95. Confessional at a church
    96. Construction site
    97. Corn fields just before harvest
    98. Coronation
    99. Courtroom
    100. Covered wagon
    101. Creepy, deserted windmill at night
    102. Crime lord's furnished house
    103. Crossroads
    104. Crossroads in farmland
    105. Crossroads in wilderness
    106. Dark corner of the tavern
    107. Death-house
    108. Demolition derby
    109. Deserted island
    110. Deserted space station
    111. Dining car on a train
    112. Dining room of a well-to-do merchant by invitation
    113. Doctor's office
    114. Dog kennel
    115. Dog race
    116. Dojo
    117. Dormant volcano
    118. Dressing room (or prop room)
    119. During a public speech
    120. During a royal hunt
    121. Edge of a waterfall
    122. Elegant salon
    123. Embassy
    124. Fairgrounds
    125. Famous monument
    126. Farmer's field
    127. Ferry boat
    128. Ferry dock
    129. Fireworks factory
    130. Fish pond
    131. Floating inner tubes
    132. Flooded town
    133. Flying buttress of a cathedral
    134. Foggy graveyard
    135. Foggy street corner
    136. Food vendor's cart
    137. Football stadium at night
    138. Ford
    139. Fountain
    140. Foxhole
    141. Funeral
    142. Furniture shop
    143. Gallows
    144. Gallows tree
    145. Garden
    146. Garden of hot springs
    147. Gentleman's drawing room
    148. Ghost town
    149. Girlfriend's boudoir
    150. Go-carts
    151. Grain silo
    152. Graveyard at night
    153. Harem
    154. Haunted house
    155. Haunted woods
    156. Hayloft
    157. Hedge maze
    158. Hen coop
    159. High-rise building being wired for demolition
    160. Hobbit/halfling hole
    161. Hollow trunk of large tree
    162. Horse race
    163. Hot air balloon
    164. House built among the roots under an old tree
    165. House of mirrors
    166. In a dinghy
    167. In the box seating at an opera, musical, or ballet
    168. In the midst of a procession through town
    169. Inactive volcano
    170. Initiation rite
    171. Inside a clock tower
    172. Inside of a stone circle
    173. Internet cafe
    174. Island from whence none have returned
    175. Island in a river
    176. Isolated cave
    177. Isolated lodge
    178. Jail
    179. Jewellery shop
    180. Jousting tourney
    181. King's bed chambers
    182. Kitchen
    183. Lady's garden
    184. Lady's parlor
    185. Land-mine riddled former battlefield
    186. Levitating together
    187. Library
    188. Lighthouse
    189. Limousine
    190. Lingerie modeling session
    191. Lion cage
    192. Livery stable
    193. Magic carpet
    194. Market square
    195. Market/bazaar
    196. Mayday (spring) festival
    197. Meadow
    198. Middle of a ring of flames
    199. Military training facility
    200. Mill
    201. Miser's House
    202. Missile test range
    203. Monastery/family burial crypt
    204. Moor
    205. Mountain top
    206. Movie/TV show production set
    207. Museum
    208. Night club
    209. Noble's personal well room
    210. Noble's quarters lit only by a few candles and a crackling fire
    211. Nuclear power facility
    212. Old battlefield
    213. Old burned-out church
    214. Old castle ruins
    215. Old marooned ship
    216. Only inhabited house in a ghost town
    217. Orphanage
    218. Outdoor festival/carnival
    219. Pantry
    220. Parent's House
    221. Park
    222. Pavilion or gazebo
    223. Peak of ghost hill
    224. Pier
    225. Pig wallow
    226. Pirate cave while pirates are away
    227. Place of worship
    228. Playhouse, backstage
    229. Playhouse, in the audience
    230. Pocket dimension
    231. Police interrogation room
    232. Political or religious rally
    233. Pony express station
    234. Prison
    235. Private gardens
    236. Private meeting hall inside an inn or tavern
    237. Privy/jakes/bathroom
    238. Public baths
    239. Public park
    240. Public square
    241. Puppet show
    242. Quarry
    243. Queen's bed chambers
    244. Quicksand pool
    245. Racetrack
    246. Radio sound booth
    247. Rafters of a great hall
    248. Rented coach/wagon
    249. Restaurant with violinist playing at the table
    250. Rich party
    251. Rickety bridge over a deep ravine
    252. Rifle range
    253. Ring of monolithic stones whose centre is a mirror-like pool
    254. River bank
    255. River/ocean dock
    256. Roadhouse outside town
    257. Roadside shrine
    258. Roller coaster
    259. Rooftop
    260. Royal garden party
    261. Ruined farmhouse
    262. Sauna/bathhouse
    263. Scribe's shop
    264. Secluded clearing in the woods
    265. Secret society dressing room
    266. Sedan
    267. Seedy hotel room
    268. Sewer tunnel
    269. Shaman Hut
    270. Ship's bilge
    271. Ship's crows nest
    272. Shipwreck
    273. Shuttle launch platform just before launch
    274. Side of the road just outside of town
    275. Skeleton of an extinct great beast
    276. Slave market
    277. Sleazy back alley
    278. Small desert island
    279. Small, secluded island just off the coast of a major city
    280. Smuggler's cove
    281. Snowed-in cabin
    282. Soundproof booth
    283. Spa
    284. Space station
    285. Space walk
    286. Sport team dressing room
    287. Sporting arena
    288. Stable
    289. Stock exchange
    290. Storm cellar
    291. Street corner
    292. Street festival
    293. Surprise party
    294. Swimming pool
    295. Tea house
    296. Temple
    297. Theatre, empty
    298. Theatre, full
    299. Theme park ride
    300. Tidal pool
    301. Tightrope
    302. Tobacco drying barn
    303. Top of a desert butte
    304. Top of a tower that has just been hit by a catapult/cannon
    305. Torture chamber
    306. Tower
    307. Town well
    308. Tree house
    309. Tribal mound
    310. Truck pull rally
    311. UN chambers
    312. Under a bridge
    313. Under the bleachers
    314. Underwater cave
    315. Upper floor of skyscraper under construction
    316. Vault of a bank
    317. Video game, anime, or comic book convention
    318. Village square
    319. Warehouse
    320. Water park with an adjoining go-kart track
    321. Waterfall
    322. Well
    323. Windmill
    324. Wine cellar
    325. World's fair
    326. Wrestling Ring
    327. XXX theatre
    328. Zoo

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Readers' Tips Of The Week:

  1. NPC Moods
    From: Rick Friedman

    When most GMs create NPCs they assign them certain characteristics, such as extrovert/introvert, etc. We all know these.

    I've had many times where I'm staring at this and am scratching my head thinking...ok, what now?

    I figured if I could get deeper into what that NPC has been going through in his personal life, it might reflect in the way he interacts with the PCs. I've tried to keep it simple, but you can see how easily you can add modifiers, or other areas of influence.

    Basic areas of influence:

    • Money
    • Love
    • Luck
    • Health


    By rolling a die (10, 20, or 00, personal preference) you can see if they're having a good or bad day in that part of their life (or week, month, year).

    High rolls mean the NPC is doing well in that area, low not so good. It's hopefully straightforward and you can see where it may even lead to some fun side-quests.

    1. Hey, the innkeeper got some money (+Money) in from his new marriage (+Love), but is sick (-Health) and is willing to pay the PCs to travel to the next town and bring it back.

    2. A lot of NPCs are in bad health. Is there a plague in the works?

    3. A lot of good fortune: organized crime paying people to be quiet. A lot of bad fortune: extorting protection money.


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  2. RPG Sound Mixer (PC)
    From: Bluemagician The Sorcerer

    re: http://www.roleplayingtips.com/readissue.php?number=219#r10

    Hi Johnn,

    I've been reading your ezine for quite a while. As I find in almost every issue a worthwhile tip, I always wanted to return the favor one day. So, when I read the Reader's Tip about Winamp-Playlists I finally had my own tip. For there is a program out there for exactly that purpose: managing your music and sounds for roleplaying sessions. It's called RPG Soundmixer and a free demo can be found here:

    http://www.rpgsoundmixer.com

    It's a great and powerful program, and although the original program and website is German, most of it has been translated to English.

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  3. Dealing With Spotlight Requests
    From: Garry Stahl

    Personally, I don't set up encounters with the characters in mind--unless the foe has the characters in mind. I simply construct the situation and let the characters bring what they have to bear against it.

    I used to get the complaint (always from the same people) "there is nothing for my character to do." Eventually, I had the epiphany that this was code for, "I'm not constantly the center of attention." I sat my group down and explained that it was not my responsibility to play their characters. They were responsible for applying their skills and ideas to the circumstances of my creation. That has been my functional doctrine since. Create the scenario and let the players decide how to apply the characters' abilities to solve it.

    The only thing I avoid is the one-solution problem unless the tools are right in front of the party. i.e. The one key will be around the bad guy's neck. It is up to them to get the tools, but the tools are presented and obtainable.

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  4. Metric Movement Rates
    From: Paul Simmons

    re: http://www.roleplayingtips.com/issue119.asp

    These are great. I will definitely be using this for my games. Here are some metric conversions:

    Creature Or Vehicle - Base Distance Moved Per 6 Seconds
    -------------------------------------------------------
    Insect, small flying (i.e. bumble bee) - 12 m.
    Insect, small walking (i.e. beetle) - 0.9 m.
    Insect, large flying (i.e. locust, giant bee) - 36 m.
    Insect, large walking - 1 m.
    Dog, small - 12 m.
    Dog, large - 12 m.
    Horse - 12 m.
    Human, small (i.e. gnome, dwarf, goblin) - 6 m.
    Human - 9 m.
    Tiger - 12 m.
    Elephant - 12 m.
    Tyrannosaurus Rex - 12 m.
    Bird, small (raven) - 12 m.
    Bird, medium (hawk) - 18m.
    Bird, large (osprey) - 18m.
    Bird, humongous (roc) - 24 m.
    


    Skateboard - 18 m.
    Rollerblades - 18 m.
    Bicycle - 24 m.
    Cart or wagon - 6 m.
    


    Rowboat - 4.5 m.
    Galley - 12 m.
    Schooner - 6 m.
    


    The Formula

    Metres per minute: Base Distance x 10

    Kilometres per hour: Base Distance x 3/5 or 0.6

    Kilometres per day: Base Distance x 2 2/15 or 2.13333*
    * this could be rounded to a simple 2.1 or 2.2


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