Roleplaying Tips Weekly E-Zine Issue #490
Superheroes Tips Series, Final Part
Readers chime in with good advice about Big Boss Guys
more sources of GM superhero inspiration. Johnn rambles
about why GMs fear game preparation so much. A guest author
tells us a bit about Medieval peddlers and merchants.
This Week's Tips Summarized
Superheroes Tips Series, Final Part
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A Brief Word From Johnn
Pick Pockets Contest = Win NBOS Software; Ends Soon
The contest theme is items you'd find when picking pockets.
But there's a twist: add an interesting plot or encounter
hook to the pocket contents.
Thanks to new ezine sponsor NBOS, three winners will be
selected at random and each gets their pick of one NBOS
software title. Visit www.nbos.com to see what GM
software you can choose if you win. Perhaps Fractal Mapper
will help your campaign mapping. Maybe Astrosynthesis is
what you need to chart the galaxy. Have you checked out The
Monday, May 31. There's not much time for this one, so get
your entries in now - multiple entries are welcome.
How To Enter
Email your entries to me at email@example.com
Each entry is one pick pocket item that has an interesting
hook or detail that would enhance a GM's game.
Multiple entries are welcome.
Example Entries, Item + Hook:
A napkin with a crude map on it, and the name of the tavern
where the napkin came from.
A claw from a monster the PCs are about to quest for.
A pair of ladies' gloves with the initials A.L. on them.
A key with a symbol of Kane on it.
A rock made of some strange flecked material with the word
"Barakus" written on the bottom.
Good luck! If you have any questions, drop me an email.
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Superheroes Tips Series, Final Part
Welcome to the final part of the superheroes tips series.
This week features a number of individual tips from readers
who write in response to a request made in Issue #472.
Prepare NPCs And Locations, Not Encounter Sequences
From Jolle Lont
In a superhero campaign, the players have absurdly strong
powers. They will use them in unpredictable ways to reach
their goals. While players do unexpected stuff in any
campaign, in a superhero campaign it will be worse.
This means it's almost impossible to plan your stories in a
linear or semi-linear way. Players will find ways to bypass
large parts of your stories, and there will be little you
can do about it. Instead, use the high power level to your
advantage: the villains can have strong abilities and
powers, and they should be smart enough to react to the PCs
What does this concretely mean for your GMing preparations?
Don't plan a linear set of encounters. Instead, make up a
few detailed locations and NPCs. Think about how these
interact and how the players can reach or contact them. When
the players interact with an NPC or location, think about
how this affect other NPCs.
For example, if the players find a hideout of the main
villain, the villain can react to this: he will probably
change locations. If there are security cameras in his
hideout, he might be able to identify one of the PCs and
hire an agent to spy on them.
These kinds of interactions are impossible to plan, but if
you have prepared a few detailed locations and NPCs, it is
much easier to deal with in-session.
In the above example, having a spy NPC and a new hideout
location already worked out will help a lot. Also consider
that both the spy and the new hideout can be usable in
completely different situations as well.
In short: don't plan encounter sequences, they are not
versatile. Instead, prepare NPCs and locations, which are
versatile. A single encounter might be versatile as well (if
you can use it in a lot of different situations).
I also wish Jason good luck and a lot of fun with his
From Laurence MacNaughton
Here's some advice for Jason and his superhero game.
Superhero RPGs are all about the flavor, and it's so easy to
get it wrong. If possible, get your GM to check out two
games: Mutants & Masterminds, and the Marvel Universe RPG.
Both have excellent advice on running comic book games (not
to mention being excellent games to play).
Also, for more in-depth material on plotting, tropes, super-
villains and the unwritten rules of comic books, check out
Writing For Comics With Peter David. The DC Comics Guide to
Writing Comics is wonderful too.
But by far the best advice I can give: go to the source. Get
to a book store or library and grab some paperback comic
book anthologies. If possible, get one of those thick
"Essential" volumes Marvel puts out; they're black and white
reprints of entire series (Spider Man, Avengers, X-Men,
etc.) from the sixties to the eighties. Here's an Amazon
link to one:
Essential Avengers, Vol. 6 (Marvel Essentials) (v. 6) at Amazon.com/
Just flipping through and looking at the art will get anyone
in a comic book mood, I guarantee. Pow! Zap! Plus, there are
oodles of story ideas in there. Giant robots, time travel,
ancient curses, you name it.
Superhero Resource Suggestion: RPG Review #4
From Lev Lafayette
It's a bit of a free plug on my behalf, but could I suggest
the campaign in RPG Review Issue Four as a superhero campaign.
Instead of contemporary super science, the basic premise is
mythic. The PCs are the children of various gods of ancient
times, across multiple pantheons (e.g., Celtic, Norse,
Greek/Roman, Indian, Egyptian etc), like in Deities &
Demigods. They have banded together to transcend their
particular cultural loyalties in favour of a universal good.
As the campaign progresses, however, their success starts to
cause a breakdown on the prime material plane. This has an
affect in the planar reality, with the gradual decay of the
PCs original homes and the development of new planes of
The advantage, for a newcomer's point of view, is the game
feels like a very high-level fantasy game, which it is, but
it is using a superhero RPG ruleset appropriate for such a
Superhero Resource Suggestion: Strike Force
From Michael Horton
Back in my hard-core Champions/Hero Games gaming days, they
published one of the finest game, genre and setting books
ever created for any game. The supplement was called "Strike
Force" and written by the Champions guru Aaron Allston.
This book went over role-playing in general, superhero role-
playing and the overall superhero genre, while describing
the characters, setting, and storyline of the author's own
campaigns. It also dealt with meta-gaming issues such as
players leaving the group.
Published in 1988, I am sure it is long out of print. I
still use it for inspiration, ideas, and guidance in my
Find Strike Force if at all possible. Maybe a store or
online shop specializing in out of print items would have
Superhero Resource Suggestion: Mutants & Masterminds
From Forrest Elam
My friends and I play a superhero campaign using the Mutants
and Masterminds rules by Green Ronin Publishing, but even if
they are using a different system, I would suggest they pick
up a copy of the M&M 2nd edition rulebook. It has excellent
sections on creating adventures and world building that
might help (there is even a sidebar list of 100 adventure
Their Freedom City book is a good example of a superhero
setting with lots of good information. The Green Ronin
website also has Mutants and Masterminds forums where you
can post and get some tips.
There is a great book out there that will give you great
insight into the evil mastermind super-villain titled "Soon
I WILL BE Invincible" by Austin Grossman. It is a fun read
and might inspire your GM as well as give him some basic
superhero genre info.
Watching either of the Fantastic Four Movies might help.
They have a team of superheroes in a less bloodthirsty story
than the X-men movies, and would probably be more what you
are hoping for in a game.
The animated series "The Justice League" and "The Justice
League Unlimited" would be good to view (you might be able
to rent them or check them out from your local Library if
you don't buy them). I especially recommend The Justice
League Unlimited Season One.
Focus On The Big Boss Guy
From Walter Myers
Start with where the villain wants to ultimately end up.
This gives you most of the inspiration on what drives the
villain's choices and actions (what they will and will not
do) in game, and drives what kinds of encounters that NEED
to be created by the GM to achieve that goal.
As for filler adventures (the adventures that happen between
the encounters of the Ultimate Goal) I tend to look at news
sites for interesting news bits from my home country and
around the world.
When something catches my eye, say an earthquake in China, I
ask what if that earthquake was caused by something other
then natural process? What could have caused it? Perhaps it
was.... (Appropriate powered villain named ??? trying to
steal the ancient widget of the ??? people) that caused it.
It also works just as well for local crimes. Instead of a
local crackhead robbing the gas station, it was members of
the armored tech gang, Bad Boys, trying to kidnap someone
from that gas station.
You have to base the threat on the power level of the
heroes. You can't have your favorite web head face off
against something that eats planets and survive, but he can
face off against a bank robber in a powered suit and still
go home to his cold pot of Raman noodles.
Regarding descriptions of encounter locations, abandoned or
derelict buildings will have odd odors like rotten wood,
mildew, mold, or dried or fresh human and animal waste. A
quick look up on the internet will give you ideas of what
different industrial buildings look like inside.
By laying out the ultimate goal of the Big Boss Guy (BBG)
you can come up with what is needed to accomplish it, and
then the encounter possibilities just pop out on their own.
Before you know it you have created a story arc that can go
for as long as you want.
For an example, I created a Mutants and Masterminds campaign
where the BBG ultimately wanted to close off the
Mediterranean Ocean and accelerate the evaporation of the
sea water so that he could claim the newly "discovered" land
that was outside the current international boundaries of
existing countries for his own.
With the end goal in mind, I was able to make a list of what
would be needed by the BBG to accomplish the goal.
List that I came up with:
- Special-powered Flunkies that have powers and abilities
the BBG does not have but are needed to accomplish the
ultimate goal = Opportunities for the heroes to interact
with the BBG's lieutenants as they go about various stages
of implementing the Ultimate goal.
- Breaking other flunkies out of custody.
- Stealing large items or items under extreme security or
- Planting dangerous devices to help fulfill the ultimate
- Non-powered flunkies to do the grunt or little work =
They may not even know that they are working for the BBG
- Terrorists to attack pumping stations on dams on the
rivers that feed the Mediterranean.
- Street gang that is robbing banks and splitting the take
with their unknown benefactor.
- Extra muscle used by the BBG lieutenants on their missions.
- Money. LOTS of Money
- Opportunities for starting level or young heroes to get
involved in events that extend outside of their own
neighborhood or city
- Try to stop robberies and other low level things.
- Chances to get small bits and clues of the larger overall
- Technological widgets to augment the flunkies (both
powered and non powered).
- Opportunities to meet and beat, or get beaten by, the
- Opportunities for grudges to form between players and
- Chances to get bigger clues to what the big picture is.
- Chance to increase or decrease the difficulty of later
- An area where the BBG can do a small scale test of the
method that will eventually fulfill some or all of the
- Opportunity to meet BBG for the first time.
- Chance to get a view of the complete picture of the
- Opportunity to possibly stop or slow progress toward
- Action is not opposed by heroes - set piece/ cut scene.
For this campaign, the BBG caused an island to be formed off
the mouth of the Mediterranean in international water, which
was then turned into the BBG's home base.
- 6. Friendly NPC = good placement of PC background
- Investigative reporter. Encountered during a minor scuffle
between heroes and low level thugs. Chance to pass on clues
to larger view of BBG operations.
- Prisoner. Encountered in secondary type base where a
Powered Lieutenant is in charge.
- Pivotal Plot Point = Place where characters can change
how the BBG accomplishes the goal or even stops the BBG from
achieving the Ultimate goal.
- Kill or capture Powered Minion that created or performed the
small scale test.
- Killed - BBG will not be able to raise the ocean bottom
to close off the mouth of the MED - Ultimate goal now
thought to be unreachable
- Capture - BBG will personally lead an assault to get the
- Sub-possibility - the capture or apparent death of the
BBG in the assault.
- Apparent death - A lieutenant will take over the BBG
role and the Ultimate Goal is still attempted. And the
initial captured minion escapes
- Capture - Remaining powered minions stage breakout
- Capture/Destroy the widget used to amplify the Powered
Minion that will raise the sea floor.
- Captured - BBG will personally lead an assault to get the
- Sub-possibility - the capture or apparent death of the
BBG in the assault. - A lieutenant will take over the BBG
role and the Ultimate Goal is still attempted.
- Destroyed - BBG's time table will be set back as he
attempts to clone the Powered Minion one or more times.
- Kill/Capture of Powered Minion that will accelerate the
evaporation of the Mediterranean (acceleration will cause
the water to be totally evaporated in under 24 hours)
- Killed - BBG will have to rely on the boosting widget
- evaporation now takes 1 year.
- Captured - BBG leads assault to recover the Minion
- Sub-Possibility - Same as above.
- Capture/Destroy the widget used to amplify the Powered
Minion that is evaporating the ocean water
- Captured - same as the widget above.
- Destroyed - Same as the widget above.
* * *
Thanks to everyone who wrote in with their superhero tips
and articles. This genre of RPG was not covered often in the
ezine before, so it deserved additional advice.
I heard Green Ronin has the DC Comic RPG license now, and
are planning a 3rd edition of Mutants & Masterminds that
will power the DC RPG line. It's a great time to be a
Return to Contents
What's The Real Reason You Hate Game Prep?
I just finished reading the War of Art by Steven Pressfield.
The War of Art | Steven Pressfield Online
He describes a force called Resistance, with a capital R,
that causes creative people to fail. Resistance creates
writer's block. It generates critics instead of creators. It
creates stress, tension and dis-ease, and even relationship
issues as Resistance does whatever it can to distract you
from getting to work.
I read many comments from game masters who say they hate
game preparation. They would rather do chores than get the
next game session ready. New games are sold and bought on
the basis of "no preparation required" or "prep-lite."
Articles and tips abound on prepping faster or using
improvisation as a way to avoid preparation.
I'm often of the same mindset. I procrastinate. "Do tomorrow
what you can do today." I play with my software GM tools
instead of filling them with content. I organize instead of
After reading War of Art, I've got a new view on this. It's
Resistance and fear that puts me off session preparation,
not the act itself. Pressfield says the hardest thing a
writer does is sit at the typewriter and start writing. The
act of writing - the techniques - is the easy part.
Beginning the act is where most of us fail. We find excuses,
even reasonable ones. And when we let the fear of creating
something win, then any excuse will do, especially the
I remember the best part as a kid of DMing D&D Red Book, and
then Advanced D&D, was drawing maps of dungeons and stocking
them with all sorts of challenges and rewards. World
building was a hoot too. Creating kingdoms and wars and maps
with adventure locations.
The irony is the preparation was the best part. Playing the
game was awesome too, but the hours spent writing, drawing,
reading and planning filled my time for many years.
So what changed? Even if you do not dungeon crawl there's
still a whole bunch of fun stuff to create. Worlds, NPCs,
treasure. Stories, histories, personalities.
I recommend reading War of Art to get the full context of
what I'm saying. Right now, though, you can pay attention to
your inner voice, feelings and emotions as you think about
the game preparation you need to do.
What are the excuses that come up? Write them down and then
think about them. Is it preparation that is actually
painful, or just stepping up to the act? I find, once I
start, prep is a ton of fun, but it's getting there that is
Here is my list of excuses that tried to pull the wool over
my eyes just this past week. It's amazing how many I have!
I aim to do a bit of prep every day. It's like building a
muscle against the Resistance. As Pressfield says, the
successful artists know that overcoming the Resistance does
not get easier, but experienced creators know they'll just
get through it. They have confidence they will succeed, even
though the actor pukes before each performance or the writer
stares at a blank page for awhile.
I *do* have the time. I *can* carve out 15 minutes a day to
work on a little something. Looking at how I spend my time,
I can actually carve out more. It's just an excuse. I bet
it's the same with you. Can you spare a quarter hour daily?
We are older and as a result smarter. So they say. Dungeons
with monsters side by side in small rooms are stupid. It's
imperfect. Why even bother?
Well, it's a game. If dungeons are dumb to you, then draw a
city block and create a couple factions who hate each other
so you can put the PCs in the middle. Do your best. The hard
part is starting the prep - you will become a better
designer over time just by doing it.
It's not only a game, but a multi-player game of
imagination. Enlist your players' help. Past tips in the
ezine advise to listen to players and steal their ideas.
That's one good way to ensure designs get more solid over
According to Scott MacLeod in Understanding Comics, the less
detail an artist supplies the more engaging a comic is
because the reader imagines the missing details himself. You
don't need 30 frames a second, just a few panels on a page.
Timelines, action and stories happen perfectly fine.
Likewise, you are not responsible for every last game
detail. Your players will fill it in just fine for you.
Aiming for perfection is just a trap that Resistance tries
to pull so you avoid getting in front of the keyboard for
another planning session.
Undefined feeling of unease
Wanna go to the coffee shop and get a tasty foam-topped
brew? Now that's a good feeling. No Resistance there. It's
immediate gratification. And easy.
Wanna sit down with your GM binder and create some NPCs for
next session? Hmmmm. Not such a good feeling. But why is it
when I start, the ideas flow and the writing is fun?
Maybe not every time, as I might be tired or uninspired, or
another form of Resistance tries to attack, such as
Most of the time though, starting is the hard part and that
uneasy feeling goes away once I get into a flow. Then I have
a terrific time. Creating is *fun*.
What is that feeling? Fear? Worry? Beats me, but it goes way
each time if I can just get started. So I say ignore the
stupid feeling. I get great results whether the feeling was
there at the beginning or not, anyway, so why listen to the
feeling at all?
Crunch is boring and tough
If you play a complex game, then it is going to take some
time and knowledge of the rules to build your game
constructs, such as NPCs, foes, traps, and so on. This stuff
might be painful for you.
The good news is many games have communities with fan-
created content you can use instead of having to make it
yourself. Some games sell products filled with crunch. You
can avoid a ton of work this way.
This is a legitimate excuse. Some GMs love to create this
stuff, but others hate it. If you dislike it, then yeah, let
it stop your game prep. Let it also stop you from GMing. And
let it stop you from gaming all together. An excuse is just
that. Even if reasonable, do not let it beat you.
If switching to a simpler game is not an option, and you do
not want to use content others have created for you, and you
do not want to use software that might be available to speed
things up for you, then I guess you're screwed. Next hobby
But if you're like me, it's just an excuse. Resistance is
trying to pull a fast one over you. Do not succumb. Get
solution-oriented. Get active.
It could be. But what is actually difficult? 'Cause, when I
get into full swing after beating away all the excuses, I
start having fun. Difficult often *is* fun.
If you are looking for easy and fast and a get-prepped-quick
scheme, what is it you're actually trying to avoid? I think
it's Resistance trying to stop you from starting. You're
avoiding the start, not the work itself.
Waiting for inspiration
In War of Art, Pressfield tells this story:
Someone once asked Somerset Maugham if he wrote on a
schedule or only when struck by inspiration. "I write only
when inspiration strikes," he replied. "Fortunately, it
strikes me every morning at nine o'clock sharp."
I might feel uninspired before starting game planning, but
once I get going the ideas come fast and furious. It's fun.
And when that does not happen, I use random generators like
those at www.chaoticshiny.com or I head over to ENWorld.org to read story hours or posts in the plots
* * *
Game preparation sucks. Until I start doing it. And then
it's a lot of fun, even after all these years. I think War
of Art explains this trap.
So now when I hear my inner voice starting to make excuses,
and it says I have no time, it's difficult, it's boring, and
I might create crap, I know it's just Resistance trying to
get me to procrastinate for another day.
I suspect it's the same for a lot of you. Maybe not
everyone. But for those who just have fears and worries, it
would be a shame if you let Resistance win. Think of all the
gaming lost due to the simple failure of letting excuses get
in the way of game preparation.
Pressfield says most creatives are people like him with
regards to Resistance. Even after completing several books,
writing best-sellers, getting famous for at least one title
going to Hollywood, he still fights every day to just sit
down at the typewriter and write. If it's like that for him,
it could be like that for you.
The answer he offers is to force yourself to get started
every day. Once you get past that hurdle of starting, the
act of creating comes easy and joyfully. You might consider
setting a schedule so that inspiration strikes at 10 p.m.
for 30 minutes every day.
Regardless of your tactic, get past the starting phase each
day, knowing it will be difficult again tomorrow, but it's
not the game prep that's the issue, it's just Resistance
trying to drag you down.
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Traveling Peddlers Around The Realms
By Tim Riley
The life of a traveling peddler could be as light and care-
free as any minstrel, or as much about drudgery as any miser
depending on the outlook and area traveled by them.
Peddlers traded in small, usable, everyday objects that
would be needed in the markets in their traveling area;
around six to twelve miles for the various market days. A
full purse from a market could make the traveling a light
hearted affair, moving from inn to inn with a private room
and bath to celebrate the arrival of the fair, But wrong
purchases or a heavy-handed tax man could take the peddler
back to the alewives common room.
Market days were lucky if were they compensated by the local
lord. Foreign traders were required to change money into
local coins, and sometimes were delayed by law up to two
hours before they could enter the fair so as to let the
locals get first crack at items. Also, tax collectors could
remove items from tables as part of the lords' tax. So, as a
means to grant favors to kinsmen, lords could grant a fair
untaxed for one of their vassals so they curry favor with
the merchant class.
Records show that 2400 market days were held within a given
year. This did not account for annual trade fairs, which
highlighted the locally produced goods. These produced
revenue in the form of taxes and fines and rents. Cost of
transporting goods to a market was calculated at 1.4 to 3
percent of the cost of the goods, depending if the goods are
transported by water or land.
Also, what was to be paid to the workers that helped with
portages and tax collection points were worked out by a
right of trade agreement set by the merchants and the local
lords. The choice made by the worker was for either a cloak,
gloves or food. Plus, a cash payment to the toll collector
based upon number of items or type going up river or down.
Gold was rarely seen by a peddler as the people used mostly
copper and silver pennies minted by the government. Gold was
used by the government itself for large purchases of land
and ships. Then those were usually transferred with purchase
agreements signed by the parties involved.
Banking could exist in a fantasy setting by the use of a
series of money lenders and guild exchange houses that have
given their members a set rate for funds deposited with
others in lieu of hard cash. Trade bars are used by
merchants where they are minted, but are usually given
reduced value the further away they are traveling from their
origin point. Peddlers could also exchange money from the
local fixed merchants at a higher rate, as they are
returning to the trade bars' point of origin, so that the
local's blacksmith and tavern can take these forms of
Peddlers travel only short distances for their markets - an
average of around 8 miles. The farther the distance the
greater the increase in the cost of the items. Areas with
several villages would have several traveling peddlers. A
small, isolated town may only receive peddlers who have the
place as a turning point. Those who make it a destination
may arrive with wagon loads of goods to service the
populace. Groups of peddlers could work the same circuit at
alternating times of the year to take advantage of seasonal
needs or desires of the locals. After all, if there is no
money or barter items available, then the trip is wasted
time and distance.
Other merchants or traders would buy and sell as they went
along to a targeted destination. This was done by the Polo's
as they ventured east; Glass and Venetian trade goods to the
Holy Land, then Holy Oil to Christian enclaves east on the
silk road, then on to China.
In your game, mercers could be sending agents/buyers along
trade routes to find new suppliers of raw or finished goods
to bring back to their locations to sell. These agents may
be able to act directly for the merchant, or they may have
some instant way of direct communication via magic. These
agents and mercers are looking to go the quickest way to the
most profit, and are looking to cut corners on travel and
time spent on the road, cheap animals, and way station
points to resupply and rest.
Merchants are more generalized in their business pattern,
such as taking a wagon north to the dwarves mines and
selling pots and pans on the way to the villages. When they
arrive at the mine they can convert all the unsold pots and
pans into pig iron and anvils. They then return back to the
south, selling the pig iron and anvils to all the smithies
along the way, and picking up fancy, worked iron from the
smiths to sell in the city when they return, setting the
cycle to repeat.
Mercers have a general location they are buying and
transporting to, to sell in their home towns or trying to
open a new market for any overflow goods from their main
market location. Sometimes, they are attempting to be rid of
older and damaged goods by selling out in the sticks.
Beware, this is what set Washington against his British
trading partners. Also, the city that I have lived in and
done business in for the last twenty-two years was founded
by a man who wanted to unload water damaged calico from the
Erie canal. So the mercer could be the buyer from the above
Some enterprises required that shares be sold to see the
risk spread. Amounts several individuals and profits shared
by those who risked more in the beginning. Ships are a major
example, with them costing in game terms tens of thousands
of gold shares being bought and resold as people's fortunes
ebbed and flowed. Shares in a boat being built could be
considered better collateral then one at sea. After all, in
the Middle Ages four out of ten ships did not return to
their home port, and in certain times it was as high as
seven out of ten due to pirates and weather. But years until
a merchant man's return was also not that uncommon, leading
to the old saying, when my ship comes in, I can redeem my
shares. This could also lead to new treasure possibilities
for your game; a chest filled with various ship shares that
have yet to return.
Merchant guilds exist to help run the mercantile life of the
city. Some of them go as far as to say who can sell what
where and when. In London, for example, fish caught above a
certain stream could only be sold up to a certain bridge and
never below it. Produce could only be held in one square and
butchery was to take place along the route to the river. The
merchants guild could also work towards better trade rights
with the other guild and city rulers, and better city fines
Tradesman or craft guilds exist to help buy in bulk and with
apprenticing rights and services. Fathers could place a son
with the guild for a certain fee, paid to the guild in
either money or property. The sons would then begin their
servitude with the guild until they were given journeyman
status. They could then travel freely to establish
Return to Contents
Johnn Four's GM Guide Books
In addition to writing and publishing this e-zine, I have
written several GM tips and advice books to inspire your
games and to make GMing easier and fun:
How to design, map, and GM fresh encounters for RPG's most
popular locales. Includes campaign and NPC advice as well,
plus several generators and tables
Advice and tips for designing compelling holidays that not
only expand your game world but provide endless natural
encounter, adventure, and campaign hooks.
Critically acclaimed and multiple award-winning guide to
crafting, roleplaying, and GMing three dimensional NPCs for
any game system and genre. This book will make a difference
to your GMing.
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